Chapter 16

Viruses

What are Viruses?
Viruses are infectious particles that carry an RNA- or DNA-based genome. Viral replication can occur only inside of a host cell because viruses use…
Viral Structure
16.2: Viral Structure
Viruses are extraordinarily diverse in shape and size, but they all have several structural features in common. All viruses have a core that contains…
Lytic Cycle of Bacteriophages
16.3: Lytic Cycle of Bacteriophages
Bacteriophages are specialized viruses that infect only bacteria. A key characteristic of phages is their distinctive ‘head-tail’…
Lysogenic Cycle of Bacteriophages
16.4: Lysogenic Cycle of Bacteriophages
In contrast to the lytic cycle, phages in the lysogenic cycle do not immediately kill their host cell. Instead, they combine their genome with the…
Retrovirus Life Cycles
16.5: Retrovirus Life Cycles
Retroviruses have a single-stranded RNA genome that undergoes a special form of replication. Once they have uncoated their genome in the host cell,…
Viral Recombination
16.6: Viral Recombination
Cells are sometimes infected by more than one virus at once. When two viruses disassemble to expose their genomes for replication in the same cell,…
Viral Mutations
16.7: Viral Mutations
A mutation is a change in the sequence of bases of DNA or RNA in a genome. Some mutations occur during replication of the genome due to errors made…
Detection of Bacteriophages
16.8: Detection of Bacteriophages
A plaque assay is a widely used method for determining phage concentration in a sample, such as in an environmental water source, and takes…
Immunology and Infection: Influenza A Virus Studies
16.9: Immunology and Infection: Influenza A Virus Studies
Influenza A viruses are respiratory pathogens and understanding how they function requires an animal model with similar immune physiology to…
Immunology and Infection: Protocols for Investigating the Host-tissue Distribution, Transmission-mode, and Effect on the Host Fitness
16.10: Immunology and Infection: Protocols for Investigating the Host-tissue Distribution, Transmission-mode, and Effect on the Host Fitness
Progress in sequencing has uncovered new viruses and revealed that interactions with hosts are complicated because many relationships are…
Biology: Fluorescence in situ Hybridizations (FISH) for the Localization of Viruses and Endosymbiotic Bacteria in Plant and Insect Tissues
16.11: Biology: Fluorescence in situ Hybridizations (FISH) for the Localization of Viruses and Endosymbiotic Bacteria in Plant and Insect Tissues
Spatial localization and visualization of viruses during infection complements other experiments for understanding the pathogenicity process. In…
Genetics: Laser-assisted Lentiviral Gene Delivery to Mouse Fertilized Eggs
16.12: Genetics: Laser-assisted Lentiviral Gene Delivery to Mouse Fertilized Eggs
Lentiviruses are commonly used to insert genes into target organisms in genetic engineering experiments. These viruses insert their DNA into the…