Chapter 1

Scientific Inquiry

What is Biology?
The word biology is derived from the Greek words bios and logos. It's translated to the “study of life,” which refers…
Levels of Organization
1.2: Levels of Organization
The biological world is organized as a hierarchy, and the Earth’s biosphere sits at the top level and includes all life on Earth, the…
The Scientific Method
1.3: The Scientific Method
The scientific method is a detailed, stepwise process for answering questions and testing hypotheses, which are sets of predictions formed based on…
Inductive Reasoning
1.4: Inductive Reasoning
Inductive reasoning is a type of logic in which broad generalizations are inferred from specific observations. Inductive reasoning is uncertain and…
Correlation vs. Causation
1.6: Correlation vs. Causation
Statistical tests are used in experiments to calculate correlations between independent and dependent variables—whether there is a relationship…
Taxonomy
1.7: Taxonomy
In the 18th century, Carolus Linnaeus proposed the science of taxonomy—defining and naming groups of biological organisms based on shared…
Experimentation
1.9: Experimentation
Scientific experiments are designed to answer questions in biology. Once a question is defined, the first step in designing experiments is to…
Endocrine Disruption
1.10: Endocrine Disruption
Many environmental compounds and consumer goods alter hormone signaling in humans and other animals, reducing fertility and increasing disease risk.…
Muscle Physiology in Crabs
1.11: Muscle Physiology in Crabs
Proprioception is the sensation of limb position and movement that coordinates motor behavior. This article demonstrates how to record the electrical…
Teaching Core Biology Concepts
1.12: Teaching Core Biology Concepts
To prepare for biomedical, professional, and graduate programs in science, students must learn, understand and apply a variety of concepts. In…