Chapter 1

Scientific Inquiry

What is Biology?
Overview Biology is the natural science that focuses on the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, development,…
Levels of Organization
1.2: Levels of Organization
Overview Biological organization is the classification of biological structures, ranging from atoms at the bottom of the hierarchy to the…
The Scientific Method
1.3: The Scientific Method
Overview The scientific method is a detailed, empirical, problem-solving process leveraged by biologists and scientists of other disciplines. This…
Inductive Reasoning
1.4: Inductive Reasoning
Overview Inductive reasoning is a type of logic in which premises lead to a conclusion. Inductive reasoning is uncertain and operates in degrees to…
Deductive Reasoning
1.5: Deductive Reasoning
When scientists set out to explore and explain natural phenomena, they often start with specific observations that highlight a particular question or…
Correlation and Causation
1.6: Correlation and Causation
Overview Statistical tests can calculate whether there is a relationship, or correlation, between independent and dependent variables. An indirect…
Taxonomy
1.7: Taxonomy
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms based on shared characteristics. It uses a hierarchy of increasingly…
Phylogeny
1.8: Phylogeny
Phylogeny is concerned with the evolutionary diversification of organisms or groups of organisms. A group of organisms with a name is called a taxon.…
Endocrine Disruption
1.10: Endocrine Disruption
Many environmental compounds and consumer goods alter hormone signaling in humans and other animals, reducing fertility and increasing disease risk.…
Muscle Physiology in Crabs
1.11: Muscle Physiology in Crabs
Proprioception is the sensation of limb position and movement that coordinates motor behavior. This article demonstrates how to record the electrical…
Teaching Core Biology Concepts
1.12: Teaching Core Biology Concepts
To prepare for biomedical, professional, and graduate programs in science, students must learn, understand and apply a variety of concepts. In…