Chapter 9

Photosynthesis

What is Photosynthesis?
Overview Photosynthesis is a multipart, biochemical process that occurs in plants as well as some organisms like bacteria that captures water, carbon…
Light as Energy
9.2: Light as Energy
Overview The energy required to carry out photosynthesis is light—typically electromagnetic radiation from the sun, in the form of particles…
Anatomy of Chloroplasts
9.3: Anatomy of Chloroplasts
Overview Some plants like sugar cane and corn, that grow under hot conditions, use an alternative process called the C4 pathway to fix carbon. The…
Photosystem II
9.4: Photosystem II
Overview Within the thylakoid membrane, the multi-protein complex, Photosystem II harvests light energy and chlorophyll molecules transfer the…
Photosystem I
9.5: Photosystem I
Overview Like Photosystem II (PSII), Photosystem I (PSI) captures photons and transports them through chlorophyll molecules into a reaction center.…
The Calvin Cycle
9.6: The Calvin Cycle
Overview Oxygenic photosynthesis – which annually converts approximately 200 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) to organic compounds,…
C4 Pathway and CAM
9.7: C4 Pathway and CAM
Overview Some plants like sugar cane and corn, that grow under hot conditions, use an alternative process called the C4 pathway to fix carbon. The…
Spectrophotometry
9.8: Spectrophotometry
Spectrophotometry is the quantitative measurement of how much a chemical substance absorbs light by passing a beam of light through the sample using…
Liquid Chromatography
9.9: Liquid Chromatography
Chromatography is an analytical method used to separate a mixture of compounds, for instance, to identify individual colored pigments found in…
Chemistry: Assembling Water-soluble Chlorophyll-binding Proteins
9.10: Chemistry: Assembling Water-soluble Chlorophyll-binding Proteins
Chlorophyll’s ability to carry out solar energy conversion depends on its specific organization within multi-subunit transmembrane protein…
Engineering: Printing Fabrication and Morphology Characterization of Solar Cells
9.11: Engineering: Printing Fabrication and Morphology Characterization of Solar Cells
Engineers explore the conversion of sunlight into electricity to produce large-scale solar cells more efficiently and effectively. In this article,…
Biology: Supramolecular Organization of Photosynthetic Membranes using SEM
9.12: Biology: Supramolecular Organization of Photosynthetic Membranes using SEM
Biologists can use scanning electron microscopy to study how particular structures in leaves, like photosynthetic membranes, adapt to different…