Chapter 9

Photosynthesis

What is Photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is a multipart, biochemical process that occurs in plants as well as in some bacteria. It captures carbon dioxide and solar energy to…
Light as Energy
9.2: Light as Energy
Overview The energy required to carry out photosynthesis is light—typically radiation from the sun. The electromagnetic particles are called…
Anatomy of Chloroplasts
9.3: Anatomy of Chloroplasts
Green algae and plants, including green stems and unripe fruit, harbor chloroplasts—the vital organelles where photosynthesis takes place. In…
Photosystem II
9.4: Photosystem II
Overview Photosystem II is a multi-protein complex embedded within the thylakoid membrane where it harvests light energy. Chlorophyll molecules…
Photosystem I
9.5: Photosystem I
Overview Like Photosystem II (PS II), Photosystem I (PS I) captures photons and transports them through chlorophyll molecules into a reaction…
The Calvin Cycle
9.6: The Calvin Cycle
Overview Oxygenic photosynthesis converts approximately 200 billion tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) annually to organic compounds and produces…
C4 Pathway and CAM
9.7: C4 Pathway and CAM
Overview Some plants, like sugar cane and corn, that grow in hot conditions, use an alternative process called the C4 pathway to fix carbon. The…
Chemistry: Assembling Water-soluble Chlorophyll-binding Proteins
9.10: Chemistry: Assembling Water-soluble Chlorophyll-binding Proteins
Chlorophyll’s ability to carry out solar energy conversion depends on its specific organization within multi-subunit transmembrane protein…
Engineering: Printing Fabrication and Morphology Characterization of Solar Cells
9.11: Engineering: Printing Fabrication and Morphology Characterization of Solar Cells
Engineers explore the conversion of sunlight into electricity to produce large-scale solar cells more efficiently and effectively. In this article,…
Biology: Supramolecular Organization of Photosynthetic Membranes using SEM
9.12: Biology: Supramolecular Organization of Photosynthetic Membranes using SEM
Biologists can use scanning electron microscopy to study how particular structures in leaves, like photosynthetic membranes, adapt to different…