Chapter 8

Cellular Respiration

What is Glycolysis?
Glycolysis is the metabolic process of breaking down sugars to generate energy. Main Phases Glucose first enters the cell’s cytoplasm and is…
Energy-requiring Steps of Glycolysis
8.2: Energy-requiring Steps of Glycolysis
Glycolysis begins with a single glucose molecule. The Process Using ATP, the enzyme hexokinase transfers a phosphate group to the six-carbon sugar…
Energy-releasing Steps of Glycolysis
8.3: Energy-releasing Steps of Glycolysis
In the second half of glycolysis, the two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, G3P, are oxidized with the reaction catalyzed by the enzyme triose…
Pyruvate Oxidation
8.4: Pyruvate Oxidation
After glycolysis, the charged pyruvate molecules enter the mitochondria via active transport and undergo three enzymatic reactions to ensure that…
The Citric Acid Cycle
8.5: The Citric Acid Cycle
The citric acid cycle is a closed loop of reactions that occur in the mitochondrial matrix, including redox, dehydration, hydration, and…
Electron Transport Chains
8.6: Electron Transport Chains
Embedded in multiple folds of the inner membrane of mitochondria are numerous copies of the electron transport chain—a series of four protein…
Chemiosmosis
8.7: Chemiosmosis
During the electron transport chain, hydrogen ions are pumped into the intermembrane space to create a proton gradient. In the next process called…
Electron Carriers
8.8: Electron Carriers
Electron carriers are compounds that shuttle around high-energy electrons—the cell’s currency of extractable energy—via redox…
Fermentation
8.9: Fermentation
Fermentation is an anaerobic process of using sugar, without oxygen. Lactic Acid Fermentation During lactic acid fermentation—when muscles…
Dietary Connections
8.10: Dietary Connections
Organisms also ingest food in the form of carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids, which also play a role in the glycolysis…
ATP Bioluminescence
8.11: ATP Bioluminescence
The ATP bioluminescence assay is a common technique used to quantify ATP levels and detect living, metabolically active cells. ATP or adenosine…
Biology: High-resolution Respirometry to Assess Mitochondrial Function
8.12: Biology: High-resolution Respirometry to Assess Mitochondrial Function
Mitochondria play important roles in energy metabolism and their dysfunction is associated with disease and aging. This article uses…
Immunology and Infection: An Optimized Protocol to Analyze Glycolysis and Mitochondrial Respiration
8.13: Immunology and Infection: An Optimized Protocol to Analyze Glycolysis and Mitochondrial Respiration
The immune response against antigens is tightly regulated between activation and suppression and cells shift between the two by switching energy…
Medicine: Boosting Mitochondrial Function
8.14: Medicine: Boosting Mitochondrial Function
Impaired mitochondrial respiration plays a significant role in the aging process and in neurodegeneration. In this article, mice suffering from…
Biology: Studying Mitochondrial Structure and Function in Drosophila Ovaries
8.15: Biology: Studying Mitochondrial Structure and Function in Drosophila Ovaries
Analysis of the mitochondrial structure-function relationship is required for a thorough understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of mitochondrial…