Chapter 8

Cellular Respiration

What is Glycolysis?
Overview Cells make energy by breaking down macromolecules. Cellular respiration is the biochemical process that converts “food energy”…
Energy-requiring Steps of Glycolysis
8.2: Energy-requiring Steps of Glycolysis
Overview Glucose is the source of nearly all energy used by organisms. The first step of converting glucose into usable energy is called glycolysis.…
Energy-releasing Steps of Glycolysis
8.3: Energy-releasing Steps of Glycolysis
While the first phase of glycolysis consumes energy to convert glucose to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P), the second phase produces energy. The…
Pyruvate Oxidation
8.4: Pyruvate Oxidation
After glycolysis, the charged pyruvate molecules enter the mitochondria via active transport and undergo three enzymatic reactions. These reactions…
The Citric Acid Cycle
8.5: The Citric Acid Cycle
The citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle or TCA cycle, consists of several energy-generating reactions that yield one ATP molecule, three…
Electron Transport Chains
8.6: Electron Transport Chains
The final stage of cellular respiration is oxidative phosphorylation, which consists of (1) an electron transport chain and (2) chemiosmosis. The…
Chemiosmosis
8.7: Chemiosmosis
Overview Oxidative phosphorylation is a highly efficient process that generates large amounts of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the basic unit of…
Electron Carriers
8.8: Electron Carriers
Electron carriers can be thought of as electron shuttles. These compounds can easily accept electrons (i.e., be reduced) or lose them (i.e., be…
Fermentation
8.9: Fermentation
Most eukaryotic organisms require oxygen to survive and function adequately. Such organisms produce large amounts of energy during aerobic…
Dietary Connections
8.10: Dietary Connections
Overview Metabolic pathways are interconnected. The cellular respiration processes that convert glucose to ATP—such as glycolysis, pyruvate…
Biology: High-resolution Respirometry to Assess Mitochondrial Function
8.12: Biology: High-resolution Respirometry to Assess Mitochondrial Function
Mitochondria play important roles in energy metabolism and their dysfunction is associated with disease and aging. This article uses…
Immunology and Infection: An Optimized Protocol to Analyze Glycolysis and Mitochondrial Respiration
8.13: Immunology and Infection: An Optimized Protocol to Analyze Glycolysis and Mitochondrial Respiration
The immune response against antigens is tightly regulated between activation and suppression and cells shift between the two by switching energy…
Medicine: Boosting Mitochondrial Function
8.14: Medicine: Boosting Mitochondrial Function
Impaired mitochondrial respiration plays a significant role in the aging process and in neurodegeneration. In this article, mice suffering from…
Biology: Studying Mitochondrial Structure and Function in Drosophila Ovaries
8.15: Biology: Studying Mitochondrial Structure and Function in Drosophila Ovaries
Analysis of the mitochondrial structure-function relationship is required for a thorough understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of mitochondrial…