Chapter 6

Cell Signaling

Bacterial Signaling
At times, bacteria behave like a community. To achieve this they engage in quorum sensing which involves both extracellular and intracellular…
Yeast Signaling
6.2: Yeast Signaling
Cell signaling in yeast is similar to that of other eukaryotic cells in which a ligand attaches to a receptor. This stimulates kinases to activate…
Contact-dependent Signaling
6.3: Contact-dependent Signaling
Contact dependent signaling uses specialized cytoplasmic channels between cells that allow the flow of small molecules between them.  In animal…
Paracrine Signaling
6.4: Paracrine Signaling
Paracrine signaling is a distinct way that cells can communicate to their neighbors by secreting signaling molecules, which then trigger a response…
Synaptic Signaling
6.5: Synaptic Signaling
Neurons communicate to each other and to other cells mainly through chemical signaling at synapses. These specialized regions are where the axon…
G-protein Coupled Receptors
6.6: G-protein Coupled Receptors
G-protein coupled receptors are ligand binding receptors that indirectly affect changes in the cell.  The actual receptor is a single…
Endocrine Signaling
6.7: Endocrine Signaling
Endocrine cells produce hormones to communicate with remote target cells found in other organs.  The hormone reaches these distant areas using…
What are Second Messengers?
6.8: What are Second Messengers?
Because many receptor binding ligands are hydrophilic, they do not cross the cell membrane and thus their message must be relayed to a second…
Intracellular Signaling Cascades
6.9: Intracellular Signaling Cascades
Intracellular signaling cascades amplify a signal originating extracellularly and directs it to its intended intracellular target resulting in…
Ion Channels
6.10: Ion Channels
Ion channels maintain the membrane potential of a cell. For most cells, especially excitable ones, the inside has a more negative charge than the…
Enzyme-linked Receptors
6.11: Enzyme-linked Receptors
Enzyme-linked receptors are proteins which act as both receptor and enzyme, activating multiple intracellular signals. This is a large group of…
Single-unit Recordings
6.12: Single-unit Recordings
Single-unit recording is a technique used to measure the electrophysiological activity of individual neurons.  …
Medicine: Screening Bioactive Nanoparticles
6.13: Medicine: Screening Bioactive Nanoparticles
Immune system toll-like receptors (TLR) initiate a defense system against pathogens, but when overactive, contribute to inflammation in chronic…
Immunology and Infection: Real-time Live Imaging of T-cell Signaling Complex Formation
6.14: Immunology and Infection: Real-time Live Imaging of T-cell Signaling Complex Formation
T-lymphocytes regulate the responses of the immune system against infectious diseases through a cascade triggered by receptor binding of…
Biology: Identification of Intracellular Signaling Events
6.15: Biology: Identification of Intracellular Signaling Events
Survival, proliferation, growth, and differentiation are among the many functions modulated by regulated cell death, or apoptosis. This protocol…