Chapter 3

Macromolecules

What are Proteins?
Proteins are functional molecules made from a single strand of amino acids or the combination of peptides bound together, which are called…
Protein Organization
3.2: Protein Organization
With only 20 available building blocks of amino acids, proteins differentiate themselves through four structural components. The final structure,…
Protein Folding
3.3: Protein Folding
The way a protein is folded defines its function. Folding patterns are determined by different chemical interactions. Chemical…
What are Carbohydrates?
3.4: What are Carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are made up of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen atoms in the ratio of 1:2:1. For example, glucose has six carbons, 12 hydrogens, and six…
Dehydration Synthesis
3.5: Dehydration Synthesis
Monomers, small identical or similar subunits, can be bonded together into long chains called polymers in the process of dehydration synthesis, also…
Hydrolysis
3.6: Hydrolysis
Hydrolysis uses water to break bonds in a process that is the reversal of dehydration synthesis. For example, hydrolysis of amylose, a glucose…
What are Lipids?
3.7: What are Lipids?
All lipids are hydrophobic—insoluble in water—because of their uncharged hydrocarbons and they are divided into three categories based on…
What are Nucleic Acids?
3.8: What are Nucleic Acids?
Nucleic acids are self-assembling biological polymers formed from long strings of nucleotides. Nucleotide are molecules with a pentose sugar, a…
Phosphodiester Linkages
3.9: Phosphodiester Linkages
Phosphodiester linkage occurs when two ester bonds—a central atom bonded to an oxygen atom and double-bonded to a second oxygen atom—are…
Western Blotting
3.10: Western Blotting
Western Blotting is used to identify the presence of specific proteins in electrophoretically separated samples. Following separation by a technique…
Bioengineering: Small and Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies
3.11: Bioengineering: Small and Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies
SWAXS uses the scattering of X-rays to determine structural parameters such as size, shape, and the radius of gyration of nanoparticles. Its…
Biology: 3D-PAGE of Protein and Ribonucleoprotein Complexes
3.12: Biology: 3D-PAGE of Protein and Ribonucleoprotein Complexes
Multiprotein and ribonucleoprotein complexes play important roles in biosynthesis, signaling, and maintaining the structural integrity of…
Biochemistry: Method to Visualize and Analyze Membrane Interacting Proteins
3.13: Biochemistry: Method to Visualize and Analyze Membrane Interacting Proteins
Many proteins function when they are bound to membranes. This article uses transmission electron microscopy to show the formation of complexes…
Biochemistry: Fluorescence Anisotropy as a Tool to Study Protein-protein Interactions
3.14: Biochemistry: Fluorescence Anisotropy as a Tool to Study Protein-protein Interactions
Interactions among proteins are central to determining a cell’s function, so investigating these interactions is major goal in cell biology.…
Immunology: Peptide-based Identification of Functional Motifs and their Binding Partners
3.15: Immunology: Peptide-based Identification of Functional Motifs and their Binding Partners
Chronic immune activation is a key characteristic of HIV infection that stems in part from the secretion of Nef proteins in exosomes. Improving our…
Biochemistry: Submillisecond Conformational Changes in Proteins Resolved by Photothermal Beam Deflection
3.16: Biochemistry: Submillisecond Conformational Changes in Proteins Resolved by Photothermal Beam Deflection
Many techniques for studying structural changes in proteins rely on analyzing changes in light absorption when the protein changes conformation.…
Biochemistry: Analyzing Protein Architectures and Protein-Ligand Complexes by Integrative Structural Mass Spectrometry
3.17: Biochemistry: Analyzing Protein Architectures and Protein-Ligand Complexes by Integrative Structural Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as an important tool for investigating the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies. This video…