Chapter 3

Macromolecules

What are Proteins?
Overview Proteins are chains of amino acids that are connected by peptide bonds and folded into a 3-dimensional structure. The side chains of…
Protein Organization
3.2: Protein Organization
Overview Proteins are one of the fundamental building blocks of life that carry out many diverse functions in the cell. Proteins are assembled from…
Protein Folding
3.3: Protein Folding
Overview Proteins are chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. Upon synthesis, a protein folds into a three-dimensional conformation…
What are Carbohydrates?
3.4: What are Carbohydrates?
Overview Carbohydrates are essential biological molecules made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, often in the ratio of 1:2:1. They occur as…
Dehydration Synthesis
3.5: Dehydration Synthesis
Overview Dehydration synthesis is the chemical process in which two molecules are covalently linked together with the release of a water molecule.…
Hydrolysis
3.6: Hydrolysis
Overview Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction in which water breaks a bond within a molecule. For example, it breaks peptides into amino acids,…
What are Lipids?
3.7: What are Lipids?
Overview Lipids are a group of structurally and functionally diverse organic compounds that are insoluble in water. Certain classes of lipids, such…
What are Nucleic Acids?
3.8: What are Nucleic Acids?
Overview Nucleic acids are long chains of nucleotides linked together by phosphodiester bonds. There are two types of nucleic acids:…
Phosphodiester Linkages
3.9: Phosphodiester Linkages
Overview Phosphodiester linkage is created when a phosphoric acid molecule (H3PO4) is linked with two hydroxyl groups (–OH) of two other…
Bioengineering: Small and Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies
3.11: Bioengineering: Small and Wide Angle X-Ray Scattering Studies
SWAXS uses the scattering of X-rays to determine structural parameters such as size, shape, and the radius of gyration of nanoparticles. Its…
Biology: 3D-PAGE of Protein and Ribonucleoprotein Complexes
3.12: Biology: 3D-PAGE of Protein and Ribonucleoprotein Complexes
Multiprotein and ribonucleoprotein complexes play important roles in biosynthesis, signaling, and maintaining the structural integrity of…
Biochemistry: Method to Visualize and Analyze Membrane Interacting Proteins
3.13: Biochemistry: Method to Visualize and Analyze Membrane Interacting Proteins
Many proteins function when they are bound to membranes. This article uses transmission electron microscopy to show the formation of complexes…
Biochemistry: Fluorescence Anisotropy as a Tool to Study Protein-protein Interactions
3.14: Biochemistry: Fluorescence Anisotropy as a Tool to Study Protein-protein Interactions
Interactions among proteins are central to determining a cell’s function, so investigating these interactions is major goal in cell biology.…
Immunology: Peptide-based Identification of Functional Motifs and their Binding Partners
3.15: Immunology: Peptide-based Identification of Functional Motifs and their Binding Partners
Chronic immune activation is a key characteristic of HIV infection that stems in part from the secretion of Nef proteins in exosomes. Improving our…
Biochemistry: Submillisecond Conformational Changes in Proteins Resolved by Photothermal Beam Deflection
3.16: Biochemistry: Submillisecond Conformational Changes in Proteins Resolved by Photothermal Beam Deflection
Many techniques for studying structural changes in proteins rely on analyzing changes in light absorption when the protein changes conformation.…
Biochemistry: Analyzing Protein Architectures and Protein-Ligand Complexes by Integrative Structural Mass Spectrometry
3.17: Biochemistry: Analyzing Protein Architectures and Protein-Ligand Complexes by Integrative Structural Mass Spectrometry
Mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as an important tool for investigating the structure and dynamics of macromolecular assemblies. This video…