Chapter 25

Reproduction and Development

Spermatogenesis
Spermatogenesis is the process by which haploid sperm are produced in the male testes, and relies on stem cells located close to the outer rim of…
Oogenesis
25.2: Oogenesis
In human women, oogenesis produces one mature egg cell or ovum for every precursor cell that enters meiosis. This process differs in two unique…
Fertilization
25.3: Fertilization
During fertilization, an egg and sperm cell fuse to create a new diploid structure. In humans, the process occurs once the egg has been released from…
Cleavage
25.4: Cleavage
After a large-single-celled zygote is produced via fertilization, the process of cleavage occurs while zygotes travel through the uterine tube.…
Gastrulation
25.5: Gastrulation
Gastrulation establishes the three main tissues of an embryo: the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. This developmental process relies on a series of…
Neurulation
25.6: Neurulation
Neurulation is the embryological process which forms the precursors of the central nervous system, and occurs after gastrulation has established the…
Cell Migration
25.7: Cell Migration
Cell migration, the process by which cells move from one location to another, is essential for the proper development and viability of organisms over…
Determination
25.8: Determination
During embryogenesis, cells become progressively committed to different fates through a two-step process: specification followed by…
Fate Mapping
25.9: Fate Mapping
Fate mapping is a technique used to understand how embryonic cells divide, differentiate, and migrate during development. In classic fate mapping…
Biology: Microscopy of Fission Yeast Sexual Life Cycle
25.10: Biology: Microscopy of Fission Yeast Sexual Life Cycle
The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a valuable model system for studying, the mechanics of cell fusion, division, polarity, DNA…
Developmental Biology: Analysis of Chromosome Segregation, Histone Acetylation, and Spindle Morphology in Horse Oocytes
25.11: Developmental Biology: Analysis of Chromosome Segregation, Histone Acetylation, and Spindle Morphology in Horse Oocytes
Assisted reproduction in horses allows for the development of embryos from high performers. In this article, horse oocytes are collected using…
Medicine: Model Surgical Training
25.12: Medicine: Model Surgical Training
Performing surgery on fetuses is technically challenging and even established surgeons require time and consistent practice on multiple patients…