Chapter 24

Immune System

What is the Immune System?
The immune system is a multi-layered defense system comprised of several biological structures and processes that protects the body from disease.…
Cell-mediated Immune Responses
24.2: Cell-mediated Immune Responses
In addition to the humoral antibody-mediated immune system, which defends the host against extracellular foreign agents—pathogens or…
Humoral Immune Responses
24.3: Humoral Immune Responses
The humoral immune response, also known as the antibody-mediated immune response, is an adaptive cellular response to pathogens circulating in…
Antibody Structure
24.4: Antibody Structure
Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins (Ig), are major players of the acquired immune system. These antigen-binding proteins are produced by B…
Affinity and Avidity
24.5: Affinity and Avidity
During an immune response, antibodies secreted by plasma cells bind diverse antigens found on the surface of pathogens, forming an antibody-antigen…
Cross-reactivity
24.6: Cross-reactivity
In response to invading pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, antibodies can initiate an immune response by binding to specific proteins found on…
Allergic Reactions
24.7: Allergic Reactions
An allergy is a type one hypersensitive immune response to a normally harmless substance. Typically, the immune system offers protection against…
Inflammation
24.8: Inflammation
Acute Inflammation is the body’s immune response to a potentially harmful situation, such as an infection. The General Process At the site of…
Vaccinations
24.9: Vaccinations
Vaccination, the administration of vaccines—antigenic material from pathogens, is used to confer immunity against specific pathogenic…
Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
24.10: Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA)
An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is typically performed to detect the presence and/or amount of a target protein of interest within an…
Medicine: Orthotopic Implantation and Peripheral Immune Cell Monitoring in the II-45 Syngeneic Rat Mesothelioma Model
24.11: Medicine: Orthotopic Implantation and Peripheral Immune Cell Monitoring in the II-45 Syngeneic Rat Mesothelioma Model
Malignant mesothelioma is a common primary tumor of the lung and there is a need for models for pre-clinical testing. This article demonstrates…
Immunology and Infection: Determining Immune System Suppression versus CNS Protection for Pharmacological Interventions in Autoimmune Demyelination
24.12: Immunology and Infection: Determining Immune System Suppression versus CNS Protection for Pharmacological Interventions in Autoimmune Demyelination
A hallmark of the disease multiple sclerosis is immune cell infiltration into the brain and spinal cord resulting in brain lesions and myelin…
Developmental Biology: Live Imaging of Innate Immune and Preneoplastic Cell Interactions
24.13: Developmental Biology: Live Imaging of Innate Immune and Preneoplastic Cell Interactions
Understanding the early events of tumor initiation and progression is important for the development of novel treatments for cancer. This method…
Immunology: Injections of Lipopolysaccharide into Mice to Mimic Entrance of Microbial-derived Products After Intestinal Barrier Breach
24.14: Immunology: Injections of Lipopolysaccharide into Mice to Mimic Entrance of Microbial-derived Products After Intestinal Barrier Breach
Here a protocol to mimic the entrance of bacterial-derived compounds after intestinal barrier breach is presented. A low sublethal dose of…