Chapter 24

Immune System

What is the Immune System?
Overview The immune system comprises diverse biological structures and processes that protect the body from disease. These processes can be…
Cell-mediated Immune Responses
24.2: Cell-mediated Immune Responses
Overview The cell-mediated immune system is the host’s primary response against invasive bacteria and viruses that cause intracellular…
Humoral Immune Responses
24.3: Humoral Immune Responses
Overview The humoral immune response, also known as the antibody-mediated immune response, targets pathogens circulating in “humors,” or…
Antibody Structure
24.4: Antibody Structure
Overview Antibodies, also known as immunoglobulins (Ig), are essential players of the adaptive immune system. These antigen-binding proteins are…
Affinity and Avidity
24.5: Affinity and Avidity
Overview Antibodies bind to toxins or substances on the surface of cells, bacteria, viruses, or fungi. The substance is called an antigen, and the…
Cross-reactivity
24.6: Cross-reactivity
Overview The ability of a single antibody to recognize multiple structurally similar epitopes is an important immune defense strategy that enables…
Allergic Reactions
24.7: Allergic Reactions
Overview We speak of an allergy when the immune system triggers a response against a benign foreign structure, like food, pollen or pet dander.…
Inflammation
24.8: Inflammation
Overview In response to tissue injury and infection, mast cells initiate inflammation. Mast cells release chemicals that increase the permeability…
Vaccinations
24.9: Vaccinations
Overview Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material from pathogens to confer immunity against a specific microorganism. Vaccination…
Medicine: Orthotopic Implantation and Peripheral Immune Cell Monitoring in the II-45 Syngeneic Rat Mesothelioma Model
24.11: Medicine: Orthotopic Implantation and Peripheral Immune Cell Monitoring in the II-45 Syngeneic Rat Mesothelioma Model
Malignant mesothelioma is a common primary tumor of the lung and there is a need for models for pre-clinical testing. This article demonstrates…
Immunology and Infection: Determining Immune System Suppression versus CNS Protection for Pharmacological Interventions in Autoimmune Demyelination
24.12: Immunology and Infection: Determining Immune System Suppression versus CNS Protection for Pharmacological Interventions in Autoimmune Demyelination
A hallmark of the disease multiple sclerosis is immune cell infiltration into the brain and spinal cord resulting in brain lesions and myelin…
Developmental Biology: Live Imaging of Innate Immune and Preneoplastic Cell Interactions
24.13: Developmental Biology: Live Imaging of Innate Immune and Preneoplastic Cell Interactions
Understanding the early events of tumor initiation and progression is important for the development of novel treatments for cancer. This method…
Immunology: Injections of Lipopolysaccharide into Mice to Mimic Entrance of Microbial-derived Products After Intestinal Barrier Breach
24.14: Immunology: Injections of Lipopolysaccharide into Mice to Mimic Entrance of Microbial-derived Products After Intestinal Barrier Breach
Here a protocol to mimic the entrance of bacterial-derived compounds after intestinal barrier breach is presented. A low sublethal dose of…