Chapter 23

Regulation and Excretion

Kidney Structure
The kidneys are two large bean-shaped organs located in the upper abdomen. They filter the blood several times a day to remove toxins and rebalance…
Filtration
23.2: Filtration
The function of the kidneys is to filter, reabsorb, secrete, and excrete. Every day the kidneys filter nearly 180 liters of blood, initially removing…
Urea Cycle
23.3: Urea Cycle
The urea cycle describes how liver cells convert ammonia to urea. Ammonia is a toxic waste product of protein catabolism. Land animals must convert…
Hormonal Regulation
23.4: Hormonal Regulation
The renin-aldosterone system is an endocrine system which guides the renal absorption of water and electrolytes, thus managing blood pressure and…
Biology: Physiology Lab Demonstration of Glomerular Filtration Rate in a Rat
23.6: Biology: Physiology Lab Demonstration of Glomerular Filtration Rate in a Rat
A stable and reliable platform of chronic heart failure is required to understand disease progression and pathophysiology. This robust and…
Medicine: Non-invasive Imaging of Acute Allograft Rejection after Rat Renal Transplantation
23.7: Medicine: Non-invasive Imaging of Acute Allograft Rejection after Rat Renal Transplantation
Acute rejection is a negative prognostic factor for long-term kidney allograft survival, and its timely diagnosis is crucial for function. This…
Chemistry: Integration of Miniaturized Solid Phase Extraction and LC-MS/MS Detection of 3-Nitrotyrosine in Human Urine
23.8: Chemistry: Integration of Miniaturized Solid Phase Extraction and LC-MS/MS Detection of 3-Nitrotyrosine in Human Urine
Free 3-nitrotyrosine has been extensively used as a possible biomarker for oxidative stress in a wide variety of pathological conditions; however, a…