Chapter 22

Circulatory and Pulmonary Systems

The Respiratory System
The respiratory system is comprised of the organs that enable breathing. Air enters the nostrils and mouth, followed by the pharynx (throat) and…
Breathing
22.2: Breathing
The process of breathing, inhaling and exhaling, involves the coordinated movement of the chest wall, the lungs, and the muscles that move them. Two…
Lung Capacity
22.3: Lung Capacity
The air in the lungs is measured in volumes and capacities. Lung volume measures reflect the amount of air taken in, released, or left over after a…
Gas Exchange and Transport
22.4: Gas Exchange and Transport
Gas exchange, the intake of molecular oxygen (O2) from the environment and the outflow of carbon dioxide (CO2) into the environment, is necessary for…
Anatomy of the Circulatory System
22.5: Anatomy of the Circulatory System
The human circulatory system consists of blood, blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart, around the body, and back to the heart, and the…
Anatomy of the Heart
22.6: Anatomy of the Heart
The human heart is made up of three layers of tissue that are surrounded by the pericardium, a membrane that protects and confines the heart. The…
The Cardiac Cycle
22.7: The Cardiac Cycle
The heart beats rhythmically in a sequence called the cardiac cycle—a rapid coordination of contraction (systole) and relaxation…
Blood Flow
22.8: Blood Flow
Blood is pumped by the heart into the aorta, the largest artery in the body, and then into increasingly smaller arteries, arterioles, and…
Medicine: Increasing Pulmonary Artery Pulsatile Flow Improves Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension in Piglets
22.10: Medicine: Increasing Pulmonary Artery Pulsatile Flow Improves Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension in Piglets
In pulmonary arterial hypertension, increased pressure stimulates nitric oxide production as a protective mechanism and vasodilation…
Developmental Biology: Fetal Mouse Cardiovascular Imaging Using a High-frequency Ultrasound System
22.11: Developmental Biology: Fetal Mouse Cardiovascular Imaging Using a High-frequency Ultrasound System
Congenital heart defects are the most common cause of childhood morbidity and early mortality. This protocol uses high-frequency ultrasound imaging…
Cancer: Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure Measurements in Combination with Harvest of Lung and Immune Tissue Samples in Mice
22.12: Cancer: Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure Measurements in Combination with Harvest of Lung and Immune Tissue Samples in Mice
Pulmonary hypertension confers a bad prognosis for life expectancy and understanding the mechanisms are necessary for pharmaceutical…