Chapter 22

Circulatory and Pulmonary Systems

The Respiratory System
Air enters the body through the respiratory system, traveling from outside of the body into the lungs, and back out again. Air enters through the…
Breathing
22.2: Breathing
The process of breathing, inhaling and exhaling, involves coordinated movement of the chest wall, lungs, and the muscles that move them. When the…
Lung Capacity
22.3: Lung Capacity
The amount of air that can enter or leave the lungs is measured as four volumes—single functions like inhalation—and four…
Gas Exchange and Transport
22.4: Gas Exchange and Transport
Gas exchange, particularly the transfer of molecular oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2), is necessary for cellular function. This process occurs…
Anatomy of the Circulatory System
22.5: Anatomy of the Circulatory System
The human circulatory system consists of blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart, around the body, and back to the heart, as well as the…
Anatomy of the Heart
22.6: Anatomy of the Heart
The human heart is made up of three layers of tissue which are surrounded by the pericardium, a membrane that protects and confines the heart. The…
The Cardiac Cycle
22.7: The Cardiac Cycle
The heart beats rhythmically in a sequence called the cardiac cycle—a rapid coordination of contraction, systole, and relaxation,…
Blood Flow
22.8: Blood Flow
Blood is pumped by the heart into the aorta, the major artery, and then into increasingly smaller arteries, arterioles, and capillaries, with the…
Blood Pressure
22.9: Blood Pressure
Blood pressure is a vital sign that describes the lateral pressure produced by blood upon vessel walls. One of the most important applications of…
Medicine: Increasing Pulmonary Artery Pulsatile Flow Improves Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension in Piglets
22.11: Medicine: Increasing Pulmonary Artery Pulsatile Flow Improves Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension in Piglets
In pulmonary arterial hypertension, increased pressure stimulates nitric oxide production as a protective mechanism and vasodilation…
Developmental Biology: Fetal Mouse Cardiovascular Imaging Using a High-frequency Ultrasound System
22.12: Developmental Biology: Fetal Mouse Cardiovascular Imaging Using a High-frequency Ultrasound System
Congenital heart defects are the most common cause of childhood morbidity and early mortality. This protocol uses high-frequency ultrasound imaging…
Cancer: Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure Measurements in Combination with Harvest of Lung and Immune Tissue Samples in Mice
22.13: Cancer: Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure Measurements in Combination with Harvest of Lung and Immune Tissue Samples in Mice
Pulmonary hypertension confers a bad prognosis for life expectancy and understanding the mechanisms are necessary for pharmaceutical…