Chapter 18

Nervous System

What is a Nervous System?
Overview The nervous system is the collection of specialized cells responsible for maintaining an organism’s internal environment and…
The Parasympathetic Nervous System
18.2: The Parasympathetic Nervous System
Overview The parasympathetic nervous system is one of the two major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. This parasympathetic system is…
The Sympathetic Nervous System
18.3: The Sympathetic Nervous System
Overview The sympathetic nervous system—one of the two major divisions of the autonomic nervous system—is activated in times of stress.…
The Blood-brain Barrier
18.4: The Blood-brain Barrier
Overview The blood-brain barrier (BBB) refers to the specialized vasculature that provides the brain with nutrients in the blood while strictly…
Neuron Structure
18.5: Neuron Structure
Overview Neurons are the main type of cell in the nervous system that generate and transmit electrochemical signals. They primarily communicate with…
Glial Cells
18.6: Glial Cells
Overview Glial cells are one of the two main types of cells in the nervous system. Glia cells comprise astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and…
The Resting Membrane Potential
18.7: The Resting Membrane Potential
Overview The relative difference in electrical charge, or voltage, between the inside and the outside of a cell membrane, is called the membrane…
Action Potentials
18.8: Action Potentials
Overview Neurons communicate by firing action potentials—the electrochemical signal that is propagated along the axon. The signal results in…
Long-term Potentiation
18.9: Long-term Potentiation
Long-term potentiation, or LTP, is one of the ways by which synaptic plasticity—changes in the strength of chemical synapses—can occur in…
Long-term Depression
18.10: Long-term Depression
Long-term depression, or LTD, is one of the ways by which synaptic plasticity—changes in the strength of chemical synapses—can occur in…
Developmental Biology: Immunostaining to Visualize Murine Enteric Nervous System Development
18.12: Developmental Biology: Immunostaining to Visualize Murine Enteric Nervous System Development
A functioning Enteric Nervous System controls motility, nutrient absorption, and blood flow and is formed from neural crest cells that colonize the…
Bioengineering: Three-dimensional Tissue Engineered Aligned Astrocyte Networks
18.13: Bioengineering: Three-dimensional Tissue Engineered Aligned Astrocyte Networks
The CNS has a limited capacity to counteract the loss of neurons and axonal projections from injury, stroke, or disease. In this article, living…
Medicine: A Drosophila In Vivo Injury Model for Studying Neuroregeneration
18.14: Medicine: A Drosophila In Vivo Injury Model for Studying Neuroregeneration
The inability of axons to regenerate after an injury or disease may lead to permanent disabilities in patients. This article presents a…