Chapter 15

Biotechnology

What is Genetic Engineering?
Genetic engineering is the modification of the genetic code—the DNA sequence—of an organism in the laboratory. Many organisms have been…
Antibiotic Selection
15.2: Antibiotic Selection
Antibiotics, such as penicillin, are drugs that kill or stop the growth of bacteria. They are a critical treatment for bacterial infections, but…
Recombinant DNA
15.3: Recombinant DNA
Recombinant DNA is DNA that has been combined from different sources—often, different species—in the laboratory. It is used frequently in…
Transgenic Organisms
15.4: Transgenic Organisms
Transgenic organisms are genetically engineered to contain new genes, called transgenes, which produce desired proteins. A transgene may be a…
Adult Stem Cells
15.5: Adult Stem Cells
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that divide and produce progeny that differentiate into mature, specialized cell types. All the cells in the…
Embryonic Stem Cells
15.6: Embryonic Stem Cells
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are undifferentiated cells that are pluripotent, meaning they can produce any cell type in the body. This gives them…
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
15.7: Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that divide and produce different types of cells. Ordinarily, cells that have differentiated into a specific…
In-vitro Mutagenesis
15.8: In-vitro Mutagenesis
To learn more about the function of a gene, researchers can observe what happens when the gene is inactivated or “knocked out,” by…
DNA Isolation
15.9: DNA Isolation
DNA from cells is required for many biotechnology and research applications, such as molecular cloning. To remove and purify DNA from cells,…
Gene Therapy
15.10: Gene Therapy
Gene therapy is a technique where a gene is inserted into a person’s cells to prevent or treat a serious disease. The added gene may be a…
Reproductive Cloning
15.11: Reproductive Cloning
Reproductive cloning is the process of producing a genetically identical copy—a clone—of an entire organism. While clones can be produced…
CRISPR
15.12: CRISPR
Genome editing technologies allow scientists to modify an organism’s DNA via the addition, removal, and/or rearrangement of genetic material at…
Complementary DNA
15.13: Complementary DNA
All cells in the body have the same DNA, with the exception of a few specialized cell types such as gametes. But different types of cells express…
PCR
15.14: PCR
The polymerase chain reaction, or PCR, is a technique used to amplify DNA through thermocycling—cyles of temperature changes at fixed time…
Gel Electrophoresis
15.15: Gel Electrophoresis
DNA gel electrophoresis is a technique used for the detection and separation of DNA molecules. An electric field is applied to a gel matrix comprised…
Biology: Alternative Cultures for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Production, Maintenance, and Genetic Analysis
15.16: Biology: Alternative Cultures for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Production, Maintenance, and Genetic Analysis
The ability of human pluripotent stem cells to develop into multiple tissues makes them promising for treating severe diseases. However,…
Genetics: Targeted Next-generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Pipeline
15.17: Genetics: Targeted Next-generation Sequencing and Bioinformatics Pipeline
Many genes must be evaluated for diseases with heterogeneity and this can be expensive and time consuming. This protocol demonstrates targeted…
Bioengineering: The Multi-organ Chip
15.18: Bioengineering: The Multi-organ Chip
Long-term dosing experiments are necessary to test a drug’s potential toxicity since minor environmental changes can alter physiology. In…
Genetics: CRISPR Guide RNA Cloning for Mammalian Systems
15.19: Genetics: CRISPR Guide RNA Cloning for Mammalian Systems
CRISPR genome editing has quickly become a key technology in molecular genetics. Central to this method is the generation of guide RNAs (gRNAs) that…
Genetics: CAPRRESI: Chimera Assembly by Plasmid Recovery and Restriction Enzyme Site Insertion
15.20: Genetics: CAPRRESI: Chimera Assembly by Plasmid Recovery and Restriction Enzyme Site Insertion
Gene fusion, or chimeric gene assembly, has many applications in molecular biology, ranging from gene expression studies to investigations of protein…
Bioengineering: Synthesis of Keratin-based Nanofiber for Biomedical Engineering
15.21: Bioengineering: Synthesis of Keratin-based Nanofiber for Biomedical Engineering
Electrospun nanofibers have a high surface area to weight ratio, excellent mechanical integrity, and support cell growth and proliferation. These…
Medicine: Protocols for Assessing Radiofrequency Interactions with Gold Nanoparticles and Biological Systems for Non-invasive Hyperthermia Cancer Therapy
15.22: Medicine: Protocols for Assessing Radiofrequency Interactions with Gold Nanoparticles and Biological Systems for Non-invasive Hyperthermia Cancer Therapy
This video describes protocols to investigate interactions of 13.56 MHz radiofrequency (RF) electric-fields with gold nanoparticle colloids in both…