Chapter 14

Gene Expression

What is Gene Expression?
Overview Gene expression is the process in which DNA directs the synthesis of functional products, such as proteins. Cells can regulate gene…
The Central Dogma
14.2: The Central Dogma
Overview The central dogma of biology states that information encoded in the DNA is transferred to messenger RNA (mRNA), which then directs the…
RNA Structure
14.3: RNA Structure
Overview The basic structure of RNA consists of a five-carbon sugar and one of four nitrogenous bases. Although most RNA is single-stranded, it can…
Types of RNA
14.4: Types of RNA
Overview Three main types of RNA are involved in protein synthesis: messenger RNA (mRNA), transfer RNA (tRNA), and ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These RNAs…
MicroRNAs
14.5: MicroRNAs
MicroRNA (miRNA) are short, regulatory RNA transcribed from introns—non-coding regions of a gene—or intergenic regions—stretches of…
RNA Splicing
14.6: RNA Splicing
Overview The process in which eukaryotic RNA is edited prior to protein translation is called splicing. It removes regions that do not code for…
Epigenetic Regulation
14.7: Epigenetic Regulation
Epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role in healthy development. Conversely, precisely regulated epigenetic mechanisms are disrupted in diseases…
RNA Interference
14.8: RNA Interference
RNA interference (RNAi) is a process in which a small non-coding RNA molecule blocks the expression of a gene by binding to its messenger RNA (mRNA)…
Genetics: Expression of Dietary Restriction
14.10: Genetics: Expression of Dietary Restriction
Food abundance is an environmental cue that modulates lifespan in worms through a neural circuit. In this article, C. elegans are exposed to dietary…
Genetics: Single-cell Profiling
14.11: Genetics: Single-cell Profiling
Gene expression analysis of an entire culture can mask the variability of individuals. This article analyzes single mammalian cells by fluorescently…
Biology: Affinity-based Isolation of Tagged Nuclei
14.12: Biology: Affinity-based Isolation of Tagged Nuclei
Drosophila embryonic and larval tissue are heterogeneous which can complicate the analysis of gene expression. In this article, cell-type…