Chapter 14

Gene Expression

What is Gene Expression?
A gene is a stretch of DNA that encodes for a particular protein. Every cell in the body (that has a full set of chromosomes) contains all the genes…
The Central Dogma
14.2: The Central Dogma
The central dogma of biology states that information encoded in the DNA is transferred to messenger RNA (mRNA), which then directs the synthesis of…
RNA Structure
14.3: RNA Structure
There are several different types of ribonucleic acid (RNA), including messenger RNA (mRNA) and transfer (tRNA), but they all have a similar basic…
Types of RNA
14.4: Types of RNA
There are three main types of RNA: messenger—mRNA; transfer—tRNA; and ribosomal—rRNA. Each one plays a different role in the…
MicroRNAs
14.5: MicroRNAs
MicroRNA—miRNA—is a type of small regulatory RNA that does not code for protein; Instead, it regulates gene expression by inhibiting the…
RNA Splicing
14.6: RNA Splicing
In eukaryotes, most genes contain exons—sequences that code for protein—interspersed with introns—non-coding regions. When RNA is…
Epigenetic Regulation
14.7: Epigenetic Regulation
Epigenetic regulation refers to changes in gene expression that can be inherited, without changes to the genetic sequence. This occurs during the…
RNA Interference
14.8: RNA Interference
RNA interference (RNAi) is a process in which a small RNA molecule blocks the expression of a gene by binding to its messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript,…
RNA-seq
14.9: RNA-seq
RNA sequencing, or RNA-seq, is a technique that can provide information on the sequence and quantity of every RNA expressed, known as the…
Genetics: Expression of Dietary Restriction
14.10: Genetics: Expression of Dietary Restriction
Food abundance is an environmental cue that modulates lifespan in worms through a neural circuit. In this article, C. elegans are exposed to dietary…
Genetics: Single-cell Profiling
14.11: Genetics: Single-cell Profiling
Gene expression analysis of an entire culture can mask the variability of individuals. This article analyzes single mammalian cells by fluorescently…
Biology: Affinity-based Isolation of Tagged Nuclei
14.12: Biology: Affinity-based Isolation of Tagged Nuclei
Drosophila embryonic and larval tissue are heterogeneous which can complicate the analysis of gene expression. In this article, cell-type…