Chapter 11

Meiosis

What is Meiosis?
Meiosis is the process by which diploid cells divide to produce haploid structures. Initially, each diploid cell contains 46 chromosomes, which…
Meiosis I
11.2: Meiosis I
Meiosis is a carefully orchestrated set of cell divisions, the goal of which—in humans—is to produce haploid sperm or eggs, each…
Meiosis II
11.3: Meiosis II
Meiosis II is the second and final stage of meiosis. It relies on the haploid cells produced during meiosis I, each of which contain only 23…
Crossing Over
11.4: Crossing Over
Unlike mitosis, meiosis aims for genetic diversity in its creation of haploid gametes. Dividing germ cells first begin this process in in Prophase 1,…
Human Life Cycle
11.5: Human Life Cycle
In humans, the reproductive life cycle—the series of changes that occur during reproduction—involves genetic contribution from both…
Tetrad Analysis in Yeast
11.6: Tetrad Analysis in Yeast
Tetrad analysis is one genetic crossing technique that was first developed for single-celled organisms, such as yeast, in which the four haploid…
Chromatin Spread Preparations
11.7: Chromatin Spread Preparations
The process of mammalian oogenesis can be prone to errors. This article describes chromatin spread methods to study chromosome morphology and…
Using FISH to Monitor Chromosome Segregation
11.8: Using FISH to Monitor Chromosome Segregation
Chromosome segregation errors are responsible for the majority of miscarriages and birth defects in humans. This protocol uses Fluorescence in…
Immunofluorescence Staining During Meiosis
11.9: Immunofluorescence Staining During Meiosis
Precise spatial and temporal regulation of the ERK pathway is essential for normal development in C. elegans. In this article, signal duration…